The History of Nepal can be traced back to the 30th century BC where it was said to be only the Kathmandu valley first inhabited by the people of Gopal Dynasty. The first kings of the nations were the Kirats, and sources have mentioned that as many as 32 Kirat kings were ruling Nepal. Around 500 BC, the small kingdoms in the southern region formed as one and ruled by Shakya polity. A prince born to King Suddhodhana was named Siddhartha who later renounced his royal status to lead an ascetic life and founded Buddhism whom later known as Gautama Buddha (563- 483 AD). The Licchavi period started their rule in Nepal after the Kirat era and is said as the golden period for the art of Nepal around the 2nd century CE. The Newar and Thakuri era followed soon from 8th to 12th century CE.
The Malla Kings ruled Nepal from early 12th century ruling over the people of Kathmandu valley. We can find a lot of sculptures, monuments, temples, and inscriptions from this era around Kathmandu valley to date. These Kings ruled around 200 years, and then the nation separated into small kingdoms which later unified into one in the late 14th century. After Jayasthiti Malla the kingdom was divided into three realms as Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur (Patan).
Kingdom of Nepal (1768- 2008)
In the mid-18th century CE, King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha kingdom started the Unification of what is present Nepal starting from the neighboring territories of those times. After many battle and victories around the valley, he conquered the Kathmandu valley in 1769 BC. The battles and victory can be seen in writing by Father Guiseppe, who was the eye witness of the war at that time. His sons would continue his unification winning over the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms. The battle between the East India Company and Nepal, i.e., the Anglo- Nepal war from (1815-16) was the time Nepali warriors fought bravely and prevented the armed British soldiers in entering the country. Nepal lost one-third of the Terai and eastern hills to negotiate the end of the war but was not once colonized by any other nations in the world. After the era came to the Rana regime from Jung Bahadur Rana to Mohan Shumser in 2007 BS giving the right completely to the prime ministers and the Shah Kings were just for the name. King Tribhuwan ended the regime with movement in 2007 BS. The Shah Kings ruled until 2008 AD with King Gyanendra as the last king of Nepal.
The Republic of Nepal
Nepal has been the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal since 2008, and the new constitution was introduced in 2015 AD as “Constitution of Nepal 2015”.